CRAP Principles

C-R-A-P stands for Contrast, Repetition, Alignment, and Proximity. Click here to learn more about CRAP


  • Can be achieved through variations in size, color, line thickness, and spacing
  • Try to avoid elements that are weakly similar by making them strongly different


  • Repeat visual elements such as color, shapes, textures, borders, and fonts to unify your design
  • Try to avoid too many differentiations that can confuse your audience


  • Place every element on the page with intention to create visual connections
  • Use “negative space” to avoid cramming too much into your project


  • Placing elements close together creates a relationship between the elements
  • Similarly, adding “negative space” can create a disjoint
  • Make sure headings and labels are in close proximity to their relative content